Alamo Government Discount Codes:
  • Leisure travel car rental code: Contract ID#: GOVRNR
  • Corporate Travel car rental code: Contract ID#: GOVBIZ
  • Military Orders (DoD) car rental code: Contract ID#: GOVBIZ
  • Enter GOVBIZ in the contract ID field (if not visible, click “Add Discount Code”).
  • Enter coupon code AU5751ADC for a free single upgrade to the next higher car class.

    Avis Government Discount Codes. The rates offered through tthe Avis government rate and Avis military discount programs are massively reduced compared to regular car rental rates.
    • Leisure travel car rental code: AWD # A555084
    • Corporate Travel car rental code: AWD # A555500
    • Military Orders (DoD) car rental code: AWD # A555500
    • Enter DR0034 in the Corporate Code field
    Budget Government Discount Codes. The Budget government rate and the Budget Military dicount code provide massive reductions in car rental rates for all governement employess and members of the U.S. armed forces.
    • Leisure travel car rental code: BCD T788300
    • Corporate Travel car rental code: BCD T788300
    • Military Orders (DoD) car rental code: BCD T788300

    Dollar Government Discount Codes. Like other car rental agencies, Dollar offers special rates to employees of U.S., state and community employees. The Dollar governement rate and Dollar military discount program makes renting a car at Dollar quite a bit cheaper!
    • Leisure travel car rental code: Corporate ID# GV2223
    • Corporate Travel car rental code: Corporate ID# GV2223
    • Military Orders (DoD) car rental code: Corporate ID# GV2223

    Enterprise Government Discount Codes. The Enterprise government rate and the Enterprise military discount offer excellent conditions to employees of U.S., state, county, and municipal personnel and to all members of the U.S. army, U.S. airforce and U.S. navy.
    • Leisure travel car rental code: Customer discount code FGZTA
    • Corporate Travel car rental code: Customer discount code FGZTA
    • Military Orders (DoD) car rental code: Customer discount code FGZTA

    National Government Discount Codes
    • Leisure travel car rental code: Contract ID: GOVRNR
    • Corporate Travel car rental code: Contract ID: GOVBIZ
    • Military Orders (DoD) car rental code: Contract ID: GOVBIZ

    Thifty Government Discount Codes. The
    • Leisure travel car rental code: Coporate # 0010010006
    • Corporate Travel car rental code: Coporate # 0010010006
    • Military Orders (DoD) car rental code: Coporate # 0010010006


    Many American households  enjoy watching reality TV shows where there is some sort of competition going on. It’s true. Just look at the variety of TV shows you can watch every week night after/while dinner and before going to bed. We have Wheel of Fortune and Deal or No Deal for the ones who enjoys money and luck, we have American Idol and So You Think You Can Dance for the music fans, and we have The Bachelor for the romantic dramatics.
    So there you have it. Some examples of people competing for money, a trophy or a romantic partner. However, my favorite personal would be competing for a title/cash in the food industry. Actually, I don’t even care what the final prize is, the competition is pretty intense. You have to agree with me when I say that the kitchen is the most chaotic place in the house. Fire, heat, precision are the words that describe what goes on in the kitchen when it’s in use. Perfect elements for a competition.
    I just finished watching Masterchef a few days ago. Good show. My favorite celebrity chef Gordon Ramsay is a judge in that show, accompanied by Joe Bastianich and Graham Elliot. Gordon has not only been awarded 12 Michellin stars, but his personality is what makes him a true TV character. He is direct and throws insults to contestants when he has the chance. But he fairly compliments them when he is impressed.

    Furthermore, I love food. And competing for preparing the best food is a true challenge. I grew up in a restaurant and the chaos in a house kitchen is really insignificant compared to the one in a restaurant. There is more people involved and all of them have to work in coordination. And I know exactly how a restaurant kitchen goes when there is a small thing going wrong. The kitchen can easily fix the mistake but the difficult part is to recover back to the pace it was running before.  The orders accumulate, the customers are all against you, and there is a lot of input but no output.
    Therefore, watching all of these contestants in these TV shows makes me sympathize with them. And I admired them for pursuing a dream in a very challenging yet very rewarding area.
    So go ahead and watch some TV where contestants are competing in food challenges. We all eat food and I believe most people love eating it, and because of this fact, I believe these kind of TV shows are true family shows. My sisters and I love food prep competitions and these are the few things we watch together. Even though we grew up in a restaurant, we all enjoy watching it because food is what brings everyone together.

    Who invented the stapler and where do staples come from?


    Staplers and staples have become a part of office life.

    What does SF 4 (SF4), SF 3 (SF3) and SF 1 (SF1) stand for?

    The S.F. actually stands for “Stapler Food” or “Stapler Feed”

    It indicates how many staples per strip.

    S.F. 1 and S.F. 4  =  210 staples per strip.

    S.F. 3  =  105 staples per strip (a half strip)

    Larger staplers take the full strip, smaller ones take the half.

    What is Stapling vs Tackling?

    The term “stapling” is used for both fastening with straight or bent legs.

    The term “tackling” is used for straight-leg stapling.

    On the other hand, the term “stapling” is used for bent-leg stapling when being contrasted with “tacking”.

    The legs of a staple can be allowed to protrude out the back side and folded over to provide greater binding than the friction of straight legs. Modern staples for paper staplers are made from zinc-plated steel wires glued together and bent to form a long strip of staples. More expensive stainless steel staples which do not rust are also available. 

    Some staple sizes are used more commonly than others, depending on the application required.  Some companies have unique staples just for their products, which is annoying. Staples from one manufacturer may or may not fit another manufacturer's unit even if they look similar and serve the same purpose.

    Internationally (outside the USA), staples are often described as X/Y (e.g. 26/6 or 24/6 or). The first number X is the gauge of the wire, and the second number Y is the length of the shank (leg) in millimeters.  Some exceptions to this rule include staple sizes such as No. 10.

    Common sizes for the home and office include the following sizes: 26/6, 24/6, 24/8, 13/6, 13/8 and No. 10 for mini staplers. Common sizes for heavy duty staplers include the following: 23/8, 23/12, 23/15, 23/20, 23/24, 13/10, and 13/14.

    There is no one standard that exists for staple sizes, lengths and thickness (with the notable exception of 24/6 staples, described by the German DIN 7405 standard).

    This has led to many different incompatible staples and staplers systems that all serve the same purpose or applications.

    In the United States, the specifications for non-medical staples are described in ASTM F1667-05, Standard Specification for Driven Fasteners: Nails, Spikes, and Staples. A typical office staple is designated as F1667 STFCC-04. ST indicates staple, FC indicates flat top crown, C indicates cohered (joined into a strip), and 04 is the dash number for a staple with a length of 0.250 inch (6 mm), a leg thickness of 0.020 inch (500 µm), a leg width of 0.030 inch (800 µm), and a crown width of 0.500 inch (13 mm).

    Stapleless staplers cut and bend paper without using metal fasteners.

    So….who invented the stapler???

    The Staplers we used today (21st century) has a lot of conflicting evidence as to who created the first version. It is recognized that the first version of the modern stapler was created by the B. Jahn Manufacturing Co. in early 1900s. They issued the first stapler that contained an entire row of staples not just a singular version. But, there is also evidence for the invention of a stapler like the ones we use today by a Mister John Munford. Munford sold the prototype to his employer for a small profit and thus never received recognition for his invention.

    The first stapler that has been recorded is in 18th century France.  It was said to have been used by King Louis the 15th.  Then in 1866 George W McGill developed a small, bendable, brass fastener that could be used with paper. Later in that same year he invented the machine that could insert the bendable brass clip into paper. McGill showed his invention at the 1867 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. This “stapler” could load a single ½ inch wide wire stable and had the ability to bind several sheets of paper.  However this version of the stapler was still not even close to the ones we use today.

    Fun Fact:

    The Red Stapler that appears in the Movie "Office Space" is the Red Swingline Stapler.

    Whether you spell it Donut or Doughnut, it has the same meaning. However, donuts can be  very different in terms of ingredients, processing, and eating qualities. In my previous post, I talked about yeast raised donuts. Those are quite fluffy and delicious. However, they only keep their good eating qualities for a short time – typically less than a day or even hours. Cake donuts are more “cake-like” and typically large baking manufacturers prefer to make these because of the longer shelf-life.
    Cake donuts are basically fried cakes and their shape depends on how they are cut and deposited. Just like yeast-raised donuts, cake donuts use fry fat as the heating (or heat transfer) medium and the fry fat becomes part of the donut.

    Manufacturers use pre-mixes from ingredient companies to save time and prevent ingredient scaling mishaps. Typical ingredient ranges (based on total pre-mix weight):
    55-65% Flour (usually 50/50 Hard & Soft Wheat, NOT CAKE FLOUR!)
    18-25% Sugar
    3-9% Fat (not fry fat)
    0.5-3% Egg Yolks (Dried)
    3-5% Not Fat Dried Milk
    1.75-3% Leavening
    0.75-1.5% Salt
    38-44% Water (Added by baker, not included in pre-mix ingredients)
    Take the ingredients and mix it 1-2 minutes at low speed and 1-2 minutes at medium speed (desired batter temperature is 72-78 degrees F or 22-26 C). Be careful not to over-mix the batter. Otherwise, you may get a donut with smaller volume with tough eating characteristics. Give it 10 to 20 minutes of floor time before depositing it into the fryer. Each donut averages 1.5 ounces or 42.5 grams. The distance between the depositor and fry fat should be 1.5 to 2 inches and the distance of the drop plate to the surface of the fry fat should be 1.5 to 2 inches. Fry the donuts between 45 to 60 seconds with the fry fat temperature at about 370 to 380 degrees F (188-193 C). The donuts should take 3-7 seconds to rise to the surface (old fashion style donuts take 10-11 seconds).  The smaller the donut, the shorter the frise time should be. After frying, remove the donuts from the fry fat and allow them to cool for 20 to 25 minutes to a temperature of 90 to 95 degrees F (32-35 C). This is when you have the option of adding a finishing coating or glaze on the donuts.


    Yes, you have seen them and tried them. McDonald’s serves it in their McMuffin. Thomas’ English Muffins is a famous brand. English muffins are so simple, yet so good. Just in case you are confused, English muffins are NOT the mushroom top, bell top, flat top or cupcake-like muffins.

    These are not English muffins!
    They are shaped more like hockey pucks, roughly 3 3/8 to 4 inches in diameter and 1 inch thick. Typical characteristics are a lightly browned crust, slightly rounded edges with straight sides, enrobed in a light coating of corn meal, corn flour, and mold inhibitor (giving it a slightly tart/acidic flavor), and a moist, porous crumb structure… Yes, you are correct, “nooks and crannies”!
    The essential ingredients are typically:
    Flour – Spring or Winter Hard Wheat with a 12-13% protein level
    Water – which gives hydration and aids in porosity (83-90% usage)
    Yeast – for leavening (5-8% usage)
    Salt – adjusts the flavor (1-1.75% usage)
    Sugar – provides food for yeast (0-2% usage)
    Fat Content – provides lubrication for the system (0-1.5% usage)
    Calcium Propionate – for mold inhibition (yes, you will need it with so much water! 0.5-0.75% usage)
    Other ingredients typically used and for you to consider are:
    Vital wheat gluten, protease enzymes, amylase enzymes, baking powder, milk products, sour flavors, vinegar, and reducing agents.
    Oh yeah, and how come it has that gritty texture? English muffins are commonly enrobed in a light coating of corn meal, corn flour, and mold inhibitor. Sometimes wheat flour blends are added to the mixture and sometimes rice flour is used. (And manufacturers use a light potassium sorbate spray)
    Here are some guidelines if you want to try making some yourself or if you are just curious:
    Mix – 17 to 22 minutes with a final dough temperature of less than 68 degrees F (20 C). A 2 stage method is commonly used: 1. hold 10 to 20% of the water and 2. delay the salt. The dough is mixed to have a wet consistency and be extensible.
    Floor time – 10 to 15 minutes
    Divide the dough into small dough balls roughly 2 1/4 to 2 1/2 ounces (64-71 g)
    Round the dough balls (manufacturers use a “zig-zag” board)
    Proof – 25 to 30 minutes at 115 to 125 degrees F (46-52 C) with relative humidity at 50 to 60%
    Bake – 7 to 8 minutes with temperatures 425 to 450 degrees F (219-233 C). (a griddle is usually used and the dough pieces are placed in cups shaped like hollow hockey pucks)
    Allow the English muffins to cool for about 30 to 45 minutes to about 6 degrees (or less) above room temperature. The finished moisture level is 40 to 43% and are good for 10 to 14 days if stored properly. Typically, English muffins are sliced, fork split, or pre-scored. You can do whatever you like to them if you are going to make them andenjoy them yourself!
    And here is the finished product!

    Expiration Date must be a valid date in the future (use the mmyy format).
    CVV/CVS number can be any 3 digits (ie: 321, 123, etc)

    (testing & education purpose only)

    Credit Card TypeCredit Card Number
    American Express340449828860104
    American Express344729188903248
    American Express345882423770382
    American Express348904233693112
    American Express371449635398431
    American Express373946041725154
    American Express378282246310005
    American Express378734493671000
    American Express340000000000009
    American Express341111111111111
    American Express343434343434343
    American Express346827630435344
    American Express370000000000002
    American Express370000200000000
    American Express370407269909809
    American Express370556019309221
    American Express371449635398431
    American Express374200000000004
    American Express376462280921451
    American Express377752749896404
    American Express378282246310005
    American Express378734493671000
    American Express 371449635398431
    American Express 378282246310005
    American Express Corporate378734493671000
    Australian BankCard5610591081018250
    Cart Blanche30000000000004
    Cart Blanche30569309025904
    Dankort (PBS)76009244561
    Dankort (PBS)5019717010103740
    Diners Club30025766287941
    Diners Club30026375978557
    Diners Club30224347858078
    Diners Club30569309025904
    Diners Club30569309025904
    Diners Club38520000023237
    Diners Club38520000023237
    Diners Club International30204169322643
    Diners Club International30218047196557
    Diners Club International30221511563252
    Diners Club International36000000000008
    Diners Club International36148900647913
    Diners Club International36700102000000
    Diners Club International38520000023237
    Dinners Club 30569309025904
    Dinners Club 38520000023237
    Discover 6011000990139420
    Discover 6011000990139420
    Discover 6011111111111110
    JCB 180013120680918
    JCB 210080987018585
    JCB 210093649580397
    JCB 3088261356235460
    JCB 3096231502969290
    JCB 3158562771036080
    JCB 3530111333300000
    JCB 3566002020360500
    Switch/Solo (Paymentech)6331101999990010
    UK Maestro5641820000000000
    UK Maestro6331101999990010
    UK Maestro6759649826438450
    Visa (13 Digits)4222222222222
    Visa (16 Digits)4012888888881880
    Visa (16 Digits)4111111111111110
    Visa Delta4406080400000000
    Visa Delta4462000000000000
    Visa Delta4462030000000000
    Visa Electron4917300000000000
    Visa Electron4917300800000000
    Visa Purchasing4484070000000000
    Visa Purchasing4485680502719430
    What is the credit card number format?
    All credit card numbers are divided into 3 parts:
    Issuer Identifier - 6 digits to identify the issuer of the card.
    Acccount Number - 6 to 9 digits to identify the individual account number.
    Check Digit - 1 digit computed as a checksum of the Issuer Identifier and the Account Number based on Luhn algorithm.
    For example, credit card number "4417123456789112" consists of:
    "441712" - Identifies a Visa partner as the issuer.
    "345678911" - Identifies the holder's account number.
    "2" - Gives the checksum number.

    Expiration Date must be a valid date in the future (use the mmyy format).
    CVV number can be any 3 digits (ie: 321, 123, etc)

    Here are samples to be used for testing purposes.

    Card type Card number
       American Express 378282246310005
       American Express 371449635398431
       Amex Corporate 378734493671000
       Dinners Club 38520000023237
       Dinners Club 30569309025904
       Discover 6011111111111110
       Discover 6011000990139420
       JCB 3530111333300000
       JCB 3566002020360500
       Master Card 5105105105105100
       Master Card 5555555555554440
       Master Card 4222222222222
       VISA 4111111111111110
       VISA 4012888888881880
    American Express 3400 0000 0000 009
    American Express 3411 1111 1111 111
    American Express 3434 3434 3434 343
    American Express 3434 3434 3434 343
    American Express 3468 2763 0435 344
    American Express 3700 0000 0000 002
    American Express 3700 0020 0000 000
    American Express 3704 0726 9909 809
    American Express 3705 5601 9309 221
    American Express 3714 4963 5398 431
    American Express 3742 0000 0000 004
    American Express 3764 6228 0921 451
    American Express 3777 5274 9896 404
    American Express 3782 8224 6310 005
    American Express 3787 3449 3671 000
    American Express (15 Digits) 378282246310005
    American Express (15 Digits) 371449635398431
    Amex Corporate (15 Digits) 378734493671000
    Cart Blanche 3000 0000 0000 04
    Cart Blanche 3056 9309 0259 04
    Dankort 5019 7170 1010 3742
    Dankort 5019 7170 1010 3742
    Diners Club International 3020 4169 3226 43
    Diners Club International 3021 8047 1965 57
    Diners Club International 3022 1511 5632 52
    Diners Club International 3600 0000 0000 08
    Diners Club International 3614 8900 6479 13
    Diners Club International 3670 0102 0000 00
    Diners Club International 3852 0000 0232 37
    Dinners Club (14 Digits) 38520000023237
    Dinners Club (14 Digits) 30569309025904
    Discover 6011 0000 0000 0004
    Discover 6011 0004 0000 0000
    Discover 6011 0009 9013 9424
    Discover 6011 1111 1111 1117
    Discover 6011 1532 1637 1980
    Discover 6011 6011 6011 6611
    Discover 6011 6874 8256 4166
    Discover 6011 8148 3690 5651
    Discover (16 Digits) 6011111111111110
    Discover (16 Digits) 6011000990139420
    Enroute 2014 0000 0000 009
    Enroute 2014 8112 3699 422
    Enroute 2149 2598 0592 653
    Enroute 2149 8397 2181 233
    JCB 1800 0163 8277 392
    JCB 1800 4015 3546 898
    JCB 1800 5860 1526 635
    JCB 3528 0007 0000 0000
    JCB 3528 7237 4002 2896
    JCB 3530 1113 3330 0000
    JCB 3566 0020 2036 0505
    JCB 3569 9900 0000 0009
    JCB (16 Digits) 3530111333300000
    JCB (16 Digits) 3566002020360500
    Laser 6304 9506 0000 0000 00
    Laser 6304 9000 1774 0292 441
    Maestro 6333 3333 3333 3333 336
    Master Card (16 Digits) 5105105105105100
    Master Card (16 Digits) 5555555555554440
    Mastercard 5100 0800 0000 0000
    Mastercard 5105 1051 0510 5100
    Mastercard 5111 1111 1111 1118
    Mastercard 5123 6197 4539 5853
    Mastercard 5138 4951 2555 0554
    Mastercard 5274 5763 9425 9961
    Mastercard 5301 7455 2913 8831
    Mastercard 5311 5312 8600 0465
    Mastercard 5364 5870 1178 5834
    Mastercard 5404 0000 0000 0001
    Mastercard 5431 1111 1111 1111
    Mastercard 5454 5454 5454 5454
    Mastercard 5459 8862 6563 1843
    Mastercard 5460 5060 4803 9935
    Mastercard 5500 9391 7800 4613
    Mastercard 5555 5555 5555 4444
    Mastercard 5565 5520 6448 1449
    Mastercard 5597 5076 4491 0558
    Solo 6334 5805 0000 0000
    Solo 6334 9000 0000 0005
    Solo 6334 7306 0000 0000 00
    Solo 6767 6222 2222 2222 222
    Solo 6767 6767 6767 6767 671
    UK Maestro 5641 8200 0000 0005
    UK Maestro 6331 1019 9999 0016
    UK Maestro 6759 6498 2643 8453
    Visa 4007 0000 0002 7
    Visa 4024 0071 2765 3
    Visa 4222 2222 2222 2
    Visa 4556 0692 7520 1
    Visa 4556 3818 1280 6
    Visa 4911 8300 0000 0
    Visa 4916 1839 3508 2
    Visa 4916 6034 5252 8
    Visa 4929 0000 0000 6
    Visa 4012 8888 8888 1881
    Visa 4012 8888 8888 1881
    Visa 4111 1111 1111 1111
    Visa 4111 1111 1111 1111
    Visa 4444 3333 2222 1111
    Visa 4539 1050 1153 9664
    Visa 4544 1821 7453 7267
    Visa 4716 9147 0653 4228
    Visa 4916 5417 1375 7159
    Visa 4916 6156 3934 6972
    Visa 4917 6100 0000 0000
    Visa (13 Digits) 4222222222222
    Visa (16 Digits) 4111111111111110
    Visa (16 Digits) 4012888888881880
    Visa Delta 4406 0804 0000 0000
    Visa Delta 4462 0000 0000 0003
    Visa Delta 4462 0300 0000 0000
    Visa Electron 4917 3000 0000 0008
    Visa Electron 4917 3008 0000 0000
    Visa Purchasing 4484 0700 0000 0000
    Visa Purchasing 4485 6805 0271 9433

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